When small ships must pass under the bridge, its double vertical-lift span can raise a lower railway deck without disturbing traffic on the upper deck. , The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates five stream gauges along the river, at Harrisburg, Corvallis, Albany, Salem, and Portland. They are used to regulate river flows so as to cut peaks off floods and increase low flows in late summer and autumn, and to divert water into deeper, narrower channels to prevent flooding. , A 1991 agreement between the City of Portland and the State of Oregon to dramatically reduce combined sewer overflows (CSOs) led to Portland's Big Pipe Project.  The greatest Willamette River flood in recorded history began in 1861, well before the construction of dams in the watershed. , Further downstream is the oldest remaining highway structure over the Willamette, the Hawthorne Bridge, built in 1910. Edition #: 11 NOAA RNC is a trademark of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Part of the Willamette Floodplain was established as a National Natural Landmark in 1987 and the river was named as one of 14 American Heritage Rivers in 1998. These conditions, similar to those that caused the 1861 flood, caused some of the costliest flooding in the river's recorded history. Also, NOAA's BookletChartTM is available using the link below. , The Willamette River first appears in the records of outsiders in 1792, when it was seen by British Lieutenant William Robert Broughton of the Vancouver Expedition, led by George Vancouver.  The river continued to pose flood threats through January 1965, and more stormy weather occurred along the Pacific Coast. Paper Size: 36.0" x 44.0"  The main stem of the Willamette varies in width from about 330 to 660 feet (100 to 200m). The machinery to operate the swing span was removed in the 1950s.  The floods carried Montana icebergs well into the basin, where they melted and dropped glacial erratics on the land's surface. Domestic and industrial waste from the cities built up along the river, "essentially turning the main-stem river into an open sewer by the 1920s.  As of 2009, the basin contained 20 of the 25 most populous cities in Oregon. Located at river mile (RM)12.8 or river kilometer (RK)20.6, the gauge measures the flow from an area of 11,200 square miles (29,000km2), roughly 97percent of the Willamette basin.  An Associated Press journalist reported, "The river crested at one town after anotherat Corvallis 3 feet above flood stage, Oregon City 18 feet above, Portland 10.5 feet abovemuch like a meal moving through a boa constrictor. Since 1900, more than 15 large dams and many smaller ones have been built in the Willamette's drainage basin, 13 of which are operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). 2018 OceanGrafix LLC - All rights reserved. The Willamette River ( wil-LAM-it) is a major tributary of the Columbia River, accounting for 12 to 15 percent of the Columbia's flow.  In the next couple of days, the river receded, but on December27, it was at 29.8 feet (9.1m), which was still nearly 12 feet (3.7m) above the flood stage.  Evidence suggests that massive quakes of 8 or more on the Richter scale have occurred historically in the Cascadia subduction zone off the Oregon coast, most recently in 1700CE, and that others as strong as 9 on the Richter scale occur every 500 to 800years. All rights reserved. The Santiam River system in Oregons mid-Willamette Valley offers a pleasant variety of salmon, steelhead and trout fishing options, especially during the spring and summer months.  Since then, work has proceeded slowly, and the Corps, citing engineering difficulties and cost, may not meet the original agreed-upon deadline of 2023 for a system of effective remedies. Unable to survive and reproduce as they once did, they have been "brought to the brink of extinction".  Further downstream, the St. Johns Bridge, a steel suspension bridge built in 1931, replaced the last of the Willamette River ferries in Portland.  Not all of these cities draw water directly from the Willamette for their municipal water supply. Linn City (originally Robins Nest) was established across the Willamette from Oregon City. Scores were in the "fair" category further downstream; the least favorable reading was at the Swan Island Channel midpoint (RM0.5, RK0.8) at 81. This chart is available for purchase online. In a television documentary, Pollution in Paradise, he said that "the Willamette River was actually cleaner when the Oregon Sanitary Authority was created in 1938 than it was in 1962. The Army Corps of Engineers operates 13 such dams, which affect flows from about 40percent of the basin.  By 2007 the Greenway had grown to include more than 170 separate land parcels, including 10 state parks. Navigation of Willamette River above Portland is hazardous due to the rocks, shoaling bars, and strong currents.  Public uses of the river and land along its shores include camping, swimming, fishing, boating, hiking, bicycling, and wildlife viewing.  The area to be addressed stretches from the Fremont Bridge almost to the Columbia spanning nearly 11 river miles. Operators can raise both decks as high as 163 feet (50m) above the water.  In that time period, the Clackamas' tribal population was roughly 1,800. BlackBerry, Storm, Curve, Bold, Pearl are registerd trademark of Research In Motion Limited. , Starting in the 1820s, Oregon City developed near Willamette Falls. (2006). The river was an important transportation route in the 19thcentury, although Willamette Falls, just upstream from Portland, was a major barrier to boat traffic. The Willamette River is a major tributary of the Columbia River, accounting for 12 to 15 percent of the Columbia's flow. LNM Notice/Date: 4220 2020-10-20 When the flood ended on December 14, only three homes remained standing in Linn City.  The adjacent park and neighborhood of Cathedral Park are named after the Gothic Cathedral-like appearance of the bridge towers. Macbook ChartPlotter, and Windows Marine Navigation Appnow available-. Paper Size: 36.0" x 44.0" LNM: http://ocsdata.ncd.noaa.gov/nm, NTM = NGA Notice to MarinersLNM = Local Notice to Mariners. Salmon was the most important fish to Willamette River tribes as well as to the Native Americans of the Columbia River, where white traders traded fish with the Native Americans. Locks depths of the Willamette River are at Willamette River Datum and clearances are at the datum of Newberg Pool . , Although the Willamette was, by the mid-20th century, heavily engineered and controlled by a complex system of dams, channels, and barriers, it experienced severe floods through the end of the century. Actual Chart Size: 30.3" x 40.4" By comparison, sites on the Winchuck River, the Clackamas, and the North Santiam all scored 95, and a site at a pump station on Klamath Strait Drain between Upper Klamath Lake and Lower Klamath Lake recorded the lowest score in Oregon at 19. Search by Map; RESOURCES. Present chart coverage extends only to Newberg, 43.4 (50) miles above the mouth.  The Willamette's flow varies considerably season to season, averaging about 8,200 cubic feet per second (230m3/s) in August to more than 79,000 cubic feet per second (2,200m3/s) in December. Fishing spots and depth contours layers are available in most Lake maps.  The name Willamette is of indigenous origin, deriving from the French pronunciation of the name of a Clackamas Native American village. Been exacerbated by combined sewer overflows, which affect flows from about 40 percent of the Willamette Guide! 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