, Ibn Kathir wrote in his book Al-Bidya wa-n-nihya: "In terms of his appearance, he was fair and tall, thick, bald with a white head and he had a beard that he used to colour with henna". Umayyad Arabs and their commander Mo-yi Chinese: Further west, the Umayyads were keenly aware of Sicily s strategic importance and Muawiya was the first caliph to begin raiding the island in It was used both as a base for military muadiya and as an administrative centre for north Africa, replacing Carthage. Early Arabic sources credit two diwans in particular to Muawiyah: the Diwan al-Khatam (chancellery) and the Barid (postal service), both of which greatly improved communications within the empire.  Mu'awiya handed Ali's envoy, the veteran commander and chieftain of the Bajila, Jarir ibn Abd Allah, a letter that amounted to a declaration of war against the caliph, whose legitimacy he refused to recognize. Arguing for Muawiyah having Christian beliefs are: note (148) from a Christian tract written around 680 and quoted in, sfn error: multiple targets (2): CITEREFWatt1960 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2): CITEREFShahid2000 (, .  During Mu'awiya's reign, Ibn Amir recommenced expeditions into Sistan, reaching as far as Kabul. I have always had spiritual connections, whether with animals or people. Nedbank Greyville (128905): It opened up the Mediterranean, considered a "Roman lake", and began a centuries-long series of naval conflicts over its control. 'Ali went on, "In fact Mu'awiyah makes decisions on issues without [consulting] you, and you know it. But I have followed their way of conduct falling short of those before me, but none after me will equal me in it. Iqdul Farid - Ibn Abd Rabbh, vol. A member of the clan, Uthman, went on to become the third Rashidun caliph in 644656, while other members held various governorships. Muawiyah and his companions did not see that it was obligatory upon them and if they were fought against they would consider themselves oppressed because Uthman was killed oppressively as was agreed by all the Muslims at the time and his killers were in Ali's camp, he having authority over them", Ibn Kathir (1301-1373) said: "Uthmaan was killed oppressively, may Allah be pleased with him. After the peace treaty with HasanMuawiyah turned his attention mjawiya to the Romans. I was able to feed off that vibe, recalling keepsakes from my childhood. He led them in their prayers and directed them in their gatherings. I was small town guy who grew up in the Protestant Church. Muawiyah greatly beautified Damascus, and developed a court to rival that of Constantinople. Muawiya knocked on the door and he gave him permission to enter, which he did. Name: Jamiatul Ulama (KZN)  The Qurayshite relief army was routed in the ensuing Battle of Badr, in which Mu'awiya's elder brother Hanzala and their maternal grandfather, Utba ibn Rabi'a, were killed. In the pre-Islamic period, they were a prominent clan of the Meccan tribe of Quraysh, descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams.  Della Vida further asserts that since the Umayyads who appear at the beginning of Muslim history in the early 7th century were no later than third-generation descendants of Umayya, the latter's existence is highly plausible. , In Basra, Mu'awiya reappointed his Abd Shams kinsman Abd Allah ibn Amir, who had served the office under Uthman. By Allah, it is easier to move the firm mountains than to follow Abu Bakr and Umar in their behaviour. The Banu Umayya (Arabic: , romanized: Ban Umayya, lit.  The family moved to Medina to maintain their new-found influence in the nascent Muslim community. Name: Jamiatul Ulama (KZN)  It also aided Muslim conversion efforts among the Berber tribes that dominated the surrounding countryside.. : 1314 145363, Albaraka Kingsmead (800 000):  He then enlisted support from the dominant leader of Palestine, the Judhamite chief Natil ibn Qays, by allowing the latter's confiscation of the district's treasury to go unpunished. Sahih al-Bukhari, Book #32, Hadith #6298. Muawiya was welcome to his subjects at every hour of the day, including mealtimes. Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (trans.  Abu Sufyan replaced the slain leader of the Meccan army, Abu Jahl, and led the Meccans to victory against the Muslims at the Battle of Uhud in 625. He knew when to give into us, to even allow himself to be tricked when we tried to do that to him. Some of his relatives had been killed in battles fighting against the Muslims. - 1643 C.E. , In Medina, Mu'awiya's distant kinsmen Marwan ibn al-Hakam, Sa'id ibn al-As and Ibn Amir accepted Mu'awiya's succession order, albeit disapprovingly. But you do not do [that]. Michael G Morony) (1987).  He may have raided as far south as Kawar in modern-day Niger. He displayed great forbearance towards the rashness of ignorant men and great generosity towards the grasping.  Ali seemingly abandoned the arbitration after the first meeting in which Abu Musawho, unlike Amr, was not particularly attached to his principal's causeaccepted the Syrian side's claim that Uthman was wrongfully killed, a verdict that Ali opposed. Do not harm him, yet show him the thunder and lightning [of your anger]. 6, p. 217, Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Mustadrak al Hakim, vol.   Mu'awiya then sent reinforcements led by Yazid who led the Arab army's invasion in the summer. 3, p. 420; Tarikh ibn Khaldun, vol. Nedbank Greyville (128905):  In response, Ali broke off communications with Mu'awiya, mobilized for war and invoked a curse against Mu'awiya and his close retinue as a ritual in the morning prayers.  As early as 640/41, Mu'awiya may have led a campaign against Byzantine Cilicia and proceeded to Euchaita, deep in Byzantine territory. [d] This prompted Amr ibn al-As to counsel Mu'awiya the following morning to have a number of his men tie leaves of the Qur'an on their lances in an appeal to the Iraqis to settle the conflict through consultation. : 1304 141950, Albaraka Kingsmead (800 000):  This anti-Arab feeling also influenced the books on Islamic history. , Abu Bakr's successor, Caliph Umar (r.634644), though he actively curtailed the influence of the Qurayshi elite in favor of Muhammad's earlier supporters in the administration and military, did not disturb the growing foothold of Abu Sufyan's sons in Syria, which was all but conquered by 638.  At this point, Mu'awiya did not yet claim the caliphate and his principal aim was to keep power in Syria.  When Muhammad captured Mecca in 630, Mu'awiya, his father and his elder brother Yazid embraced Islam. , Under the instructions of the caliph Uthman ibn al-Affan, Muawiyah then prepared for the siege of Constantinople. Along with his two older brothers, Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan and Utbah, Muawiyah was one of the members of the hunting party of his maternal uncle Walid bin Utbah that pursued Muhammad during the hijra migrationwhen Muhammad was hiding in Ghar al-Thawr Cave of the Bull. Later Umar formalized the welfare state Bayt al-mal. Rawzatul Manazir - Ibne Shahnah, vol.  In turn, the community was generally satisfied with his rule, under which their conditions were at least as favorable as under the Byzantines. Iqdul Farid - Ibn Abd Rabbh, vol. Once Raslullah sent Hadhrat Muwiyyah along with the prince of Ghassn to fetch a package. 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